Glossary of Americana

- A -

about uncirculated (AU)
Grade denoting nearly pristine, untouched condition.

albumen silver print (al-byoo'men)
Photograph made using a process invented in 1850 by Louis-Desiré Blanquart Evrard, in which paper treated with a solution of egg white (albumen) and salt, then sensitized with a silver nitrate emulsion, was then contact-printed with a glass plate negative through exposure to sunlight. The resulting print was typically yellow-to reddish-brown in tone. The first commercially exploitable method of producing a print from a negative, in wide use in America and Europe, c. 1860-1900. Common formats were carte de visite, cabinet card and stereograph.

ambrotype
Photograph made using a process patented in 1854 by James Ambrose Cutting, in which a glass plate negative is backed with an opaque lacquer, black paper or cloth to produce a positive image. Used as a cheaper replacement for the daguerreotype prior to the introduction of the albumen process, c. 1855-1865. See photographic plate sizes for common formats.

automobile attachment
Sign, usually metal or plastic, attached to an automobile bumper, radiator, radio antenna, or as a hood ornament.

- B -

backpaper
Trade jargon. Paper label inserted in the back of a (usually celluloid) pinback button, bearing the manufacturer’s name, union insignia, issuing group and/or an advertisement.

badge
Device or emblem signifying membership in a society or group, often with official or honorary title, identifying the wearer as practitioner of a specialized trade or profession, or advocating a political cause or candidate.

ballot
Roster of officially recognized candidates for office, or of proposed laws or enactments, used to cast a vote in an election.

bandanna
Square of cloth, larger than a kerchief, usually with a decorative border and central design, intended for use as a scarf.

banner
Strip of cloth displaying a legend, slogan, portrait or tableau, esp. one attached to a horizontal staff and carried in a procession.

bourse
Sale of items on tables (as at a show or convention).

broadside
Paper sign, quarto or larger, printed on one side in bold typefaces, for posting in public places.

brummagem (brum'-a-gem)
Showy but inferior and worthless thing. Within the trade, reproductions and bogus items.

bumper sticker
Small paper sign with self-adhesive backing, meant to be applied to an automobile bumper.

button
see clothing button or pinback button

button paper
The paper on which the design is printed in a celluloid pinback button.

buyer's premium
In an auction, percentage fee buyer pays in addition to the hammer price.

- C -

cabinet card
In photography, an albumen silver print mounted on a card measuring approx. 6.5 x 4.25 in. Popular format for portraits, c. 1870-1900.

campaign flag
see flag banner

cardboard photograph
Within the trade, a photographic print mounted on cardboard. With portraits of candidates, inserted in badges circulated in presidential campaigns, 1864-1892.

carte de visite (cart-dvah-zeet')
French, calling card. In photography, an albumen silver print mounted on a thin card measuring approx. 4 x 2.5 in. Popular format for portraits, c. 1860-1880. Also, c.d.v. or CDV.

cased image
Photographic plate image (e.g. daguerreotype, ambrotype, or ferrotype) housed in a miniature case.

cause
Ideological principle or movement with the aim of bringing about social or political reform.

c.d.v. / CDV
see carte de visite

cello (sell'-oh)
Trade jargon, from celluloid. Pinback button laminated with celluloid or other plastic.

celluloid (sell'yah-loyd)
Semi-synthetic plastic patented in 1869 by brothers John and Isaiah Hyatt, composed of cellulose nitrate and camphor, used in a variety of commercial applications until it became obsolete in the 1940s with the introduction of petroleum-derived plastics. The process for using celluloid film to laminate pinback buttons was patented by the Whitehead & Hoag Co. of Newark, New Jersey on July 17, 1894.

cinderella
In philately, gummed paper label or seal that resembles a postage stamp but will not carry the mail.

Civil War token
Privately-issued coin-like token, the approximate size of a United States cent, which circulated during the American Civil War because of a scarcity of small change. Two major types were issued: patriotics, with patriotic or political themes; and store cards, advertising pieces often carrying the issuer's name, address and type of business or services.

clothing button
Button secured to an article of clothing and meant to be passed through a buttonhole. Compare, pinback button.

coattail
Candidate for lesser office who hopes to get elected along with or "on the coattails" of a candidate for higher office.

collet
Within the trade, a metal collar securing the paper and lamination to the metal support of a pinback button.

commemorative
In numismatics, a medal issued to observe or mark an anniversary or event, or to honor the memory of a person.

consignor
Individual or party on whose behalf property is being sold.

copper-nickle
Alloy of copper and nickle. In numismatics, a metal used to strike tokens and medals.

counterstamp
In numismatics, symbol, design or lettering punched on a coin to change its value, usage or purpose; a coin with a counterstamp.

cover
Envelope or wrapper for mail.

crazing
Minute cracks, as in the glaze of ceramics or, within the trade, the celluloid lamination of pinback buttons or the emulsion of ferrotypes. Also, craze-cracking.

curl
Within the trade, extreme lateral edge of a pinback button, often where manufacturer’s name, union insignia and/or name of issuing group, are printed.

- D -

daguerreotype (dah-gare'e-oh-type)
Photograph made using a process described by Louis-Jacques Mandé Daguerre in 1839, in which a highly polished silver-clad copper plate is sensitized with iodide fumes, forming a layer of silver iodide, the plate then exposed in a camera and a resulting latent image brought out with development in mercury vapors. The first commercially exploitable photographic process, popular in America and Europe, c. 1840-1860. See photographic plate sizes for common formats.

door-hanger
Within the trade, small card sign meant to be hung from a doorknob.

- E -

electoral ticket
List of candidates for nomination or election, usually candidates endorsed by a political party. Presidential electoral tickets list both the candidates and their electors. Typically used as a voting guide, but in former times could be cast as a ballot. Compare, ballot.

emboss
To ornament with raised (embossed) work.

enamel
Colored opaque glass or glaze-like substance that is bonded to a metal, ceramic or glass surface.

engraving
In printmaking, an intaglio process in which a wooden or metal plate is marked or incised directly with a burin or other metal-marking tool; the print made from such a plate.

ephemera (eh-fem'-er-ah)
Anything transitory or short-lived. Within the trade, any of various small printed materials such as handbills, palm cards, leaflets, brochures, tickets, postcards, etc.

eye appeal
Quality of an item's attractiveness, distinct from any quantifiable measure of grade or condition.

exonumia
Numismatic items (as tokens, medals, or scrip) other than coins and paper money.

extremely fine (XF)
Grade denoting choice, excellent condition, with minimal wear or fatigue.

- F -

facsimile currency
Counterfeit paper money; funny money. Within the trade, counterfeit money issued in favor of a candidate for elective office. Compare, satirical currency.

fantasy item
Within the trade, an item represented to be from a given time period or to have historical provenance, but which never existed in any form until a later date; a fake or forgery. Compare, reproduction.

ferrotype
Photograph made using a process invented in 1858, in which a japanned iron plate is coated with light-sensitive chemicals and exposed in a camera. Introduced as a cheaper alternative to the daguerreotype, it was popular in America from the late 1850s until the early 20th century. With portraits of candidates, used in badges circulated in presidential campaigns, 1860-1892. See photographic plate sizes for common formats. Also, tintype.

ferrotype badge
Badge containing ferrotypes, esp. ferrotype portraits of presidential candidates. Often shortened, ferrotype.

field
Within the trade, the area, usually blank, surrounding the central elements of the design (as of a coin or flag).

fine (F)
Grade denoting fine condition, with average wear or fatigue.

flag banner
Banner designed to replicate the national flag or standard; in the United States, often with portraits or names of presidential candidates superimposed. Also, campaign flag.

flan
see planchet

flasher
Lenticular badge with two images and/or slogans that alternate with a change of perspective. Also, flicker.

flicker
see flasher

foxing
Stains in paper, the result of latent oxidizing of trace metals or the growth of molds, usually due to the presence of water in the environment. In pinback buttons, foxing is typically caused by rust on the metal support reacting with and bleeding through the button paper.

- G -

gelatin silver print
Photograph made using a process introduced about 1883, in which paper treated with silver halide in an emulsion of gelatin is exposed under a negative, either by contact-printing or through an enlarger, then chemically developed, fixed and dried. More stable and easier to produce, it supplanted the albumen process by the turn-of-the-century and remains the standard type of black and white photograph.

goldine (gole-deen')
Gold-colored finish used for cheaper medals or tokens.

good (G)
Grade denoting good condition, with extensive wear or fatigue.

grade
A standard term used to describe the physical condition of an object, relative to other objects of the same type or class. Grades used by Legacy Americana:

  • Proof
  • Uncirculated (UNC)
  • About Uncirculated (AU)
  • Extremely Fine (XF)
  • Very Fine (VF)
  • Fine (F)
  • Very Good (VG)
  • Good (G)
  • Fair
  • Poor

- H -

half-tone
Photomechanical process in which a photographic image is recorded on a relief plate that can be printed on a press, resulting is an image made of a tiny dot pattern.

handbill
Small printed sheet, quarto or smaller, to be distributed (as for advertising) by hand. Also, leaflet.

handkerchief
Square of cloth, smaller than a kerchief, often with a decorative border and corner design, carried as a personal accessory.

hopeful
Candidate for nomination by a political party to a public office, esp. a candidate for the Republican or Democratic presidential nomination who does not become the party's nominee.

- I -

Inaugural invitation
Invitation to (or commemorating) the inauguration of a United States president, issued by the official Inaugural Committee. Since 1949 (Truman), Inaugural invitations have issued in two formats, Congressional (octavo), and Public (quarto), the latter as souvenirs only.

Inaugural medal
Medal commemorating the inauguration of a United States president, issued under the auspices the official Inaugural Committee. Souvenir medals have been struck since 1901 (McKinley), and medals have been available for sale to the public since 1929 (Hoover). Since 1949 (Truman), typically found in a 70 mm bronze issue, but also struck in gold and silver.

incuse
To form by stamping or punching in, as of coins or features of their design.

intaglio
Mode of sculpture in which forms are carved beneath a surrounding plane surface. Compare, relief.

- J -

jugate (jew'-get)
Having parts arranged in pairs. Within the trade, having two portraits, conjoined or side-by-side, often of presidential and vice-presidential candidates. An item (such as a medal, pinback button or poster) with jugate portraits.

- K -

kerchief
Square of cloth, larger than a handkerchief but smaller than a bandanna, often with a decorative border and central design, intended for use as a head covering or scarf. Also, neckerchief.

- L -

lamination
Within the trade, the clear plastic film covering pinback badges.

lamination defect
Trade jargon. Flaw in the lamination of a pinback button, usually occurring in manufacture, resulting in trapped air beneath the lamination or the separation of the lamination from the collet or backing.

lapel pin
Small ornamental badge worn on the lapel, usually with a clasp reverse.

lapel stud
Badge mounted on a shank for insertion through a buttonhole, esp. on the lapel.

leaflet
see handbill

litho
Within the trade, a pinback button made entirely of metal, on which is directly printed a lithographed design.

lithograph
A print made from a plane surface (originally stone) on which the image to be printed is ink-receptive and the blank area ink-repellent.

- M -

medalet (meh-dal'-it)
Medal measuring less than 30 mm in diameter; a token.

mechanical
Within the trade, having moving parts, esp. a spring mechanism; a badge with such a mechanism.

memorial
Serving to preserve remembrance, esp. of a deceased person or persons.

metamorphic
Within the trade, having a part or parts that, when repositioned, alter the design or message; usually refers to a paper item, such as a metamorphic postcard.

mule
Coin, token or medal whose obverse die is not matched with its official or regular reverse die.

multigate
Trade jargon, from jugate. Having four or more portraits, conjoined or side-by-side, often of presidential and coattail candidates; an item (such as a badge or poster) with multigate portraits.

- N -

notification ceremony
Ceremony at which party leaders officially notify a candidate of the party's nomination for president or vice-president, and the candidate delivers his or her acceptance speech.

numismatics
The collection and study of coins and currency; coin collecting.

- O -

obverse
Facing the observer; of numismatic items especially, the side which bears the principal design or device, often as prescribed by the issuing authority.

- P -

palm card
Small card (to fit within the palm) printed with advertising.

paper stock sizes
Standard sizes* of paper stock used for books, newspapers and other printed materials:

  • one-sheet 24 x 36 in.
  • foolscap 18 x 24 in.
  • folio 12 x 18 in.
  • quarto (4to) 9 x 12 in.
  • octavo (8vo) 6 x 9 in.
  • duodecimo (12mo) 4 x 6 in.
  • sextodecimo (16mo) 3 x 4 in.
  • trigesimo-secundo (32do) 2 x 3 in.
  • sextodecimo-quarto (64to) 1.5 x 2 in.
  • * dimensions are approximate

parade torch
Small oil lamp meant to be attached to a pole and carried in a nocturnal procession.

pennant
Flag that tapers to a point.

philately
The collection and study of postage and imprinted stamps; stamp collecting.

photographic plate sizes
Standard sizes* of 19th century plate photography (daguerreotypes, ambrotypes, ferrotypes):

  • mammoth larger than a whole plate
  • whole plate 8.5 x 6.5 in.
  • three-quarter plate 7.25 x 5.5 in.
  • half plate 5.5 x 4.5 in.
  • quarter plate 4.25 x 3.25 in.
  • sixth plate 3.25 x 2.75 in.
  • ninth plate 2.25 x 2 in.
  • sixteenth plate 1.5 x 1 in.
  • gem smaller than a sixteenth plate
  • * dimensions are approximate

photogravure (photo-grav-yoor')
Photomechanical process in which a copper plate is coated with a light-sensitive gelatin tissue, exposed to a negative and then etched, resulting in a high quality print reproducing the continuous tones of a photograph.

pinback button
Usually circular badge, bearing a printed design or slogan obverse, with a clasp or straight pin affixed to the back. Most common forms are cello and litho. Frequently abbreviated, pinback, button. Compare, clothing button.

placard
Card or metal plaque, posted in a public place, as for advertising.

planchet
Metal disk to be stamped as a coin or other incused device.

plate image
Photograph on a plate of silver-clad copper (daguerreotype), glass (ambrotype) or japanned iron (ferrotype). Also, plate photography. See photographic plate sizes for common formats.

pocket mirror
Small mirror carried as a personal accessory, often with advertising on the back.

poster
Paper bill or sign for posting in a public place, esp. one that is decorative or pictorial.

premium
Something given free or at a reduced price with the purchase of a product or service. Many early campaign items were premiums produced for advertising purposes.

price realized
In an auction, the sold price, including the hammer price plus the buyer's premium.

proof
In numismatics, a coin or medal of the highest grade, struck on a specially-prepared planchet, using special dies, to receive the highest quality strike possible, usually a limited issue for collectors.

prooflike
In numismatics, having a mirror surface, usually the product of special mintage for collectors.

provenance
Source or history of ownership of an item being offered for sale.

- Q -

- R -

rebus
Representation of words or syllables by pictures of objects or by symbols whose names resemble the intended words or syllables in sound. Any item utilizing a rebus as part of the design.

recto
From the Latin recto folio, "on the right-hand leaf." The side that is to be read first; the front or obverse. Compare, verso.

reeded edge
In numismatics, the result of a minting process which creates vertical serrations on the edge of a coin (as found on United States dimes and quarters).

relief
Mode of sculpture in which forms are raised above a surrounding plane surface. Compare, intaglio.

repin
Trade jargon. Pinback button assembled with original button paper but laminate and hardware of a later vintage. Considered brummagem.

reproduction
Exact or close copy of an item that can be mistaken for the original. Considered brummagem.

reserve
In an auction, the minimum hammer price the consignor will accept and below which an auction lot will not be sold. May be higher than the minimum bid.

restrike
Copy of a token or medal struck from the original dies at a later date.

ribbon
Within the trade, small fabric badge, usually of silk, cotton or satin, with a printed or embroidered design or slogan, meant to be pinned to the lapel.

ribbon badge
Badge consisting of a decorative bar from which a ribbon, sometimes in combination with other ornaments, is suspended.

rosette
Ornament made of material gathered or pleated so as to resemble a rose and worn as a badge or to trim a badge. Within the trade, sometimes used as ornamental trim for a pinback button.

- S -

salt print
Photograph made using a process invented in 1840 by William Henry Fox Talbot, in which paper soaked in a salt solution and sensitized with a silver nitrate emulsion was contact-printed with a glass plate negative through exposure to sunlight; the earliest form of positive print. Saw limited use in America and Europe until about 1860, when it was replaced by the albumen process.

sample
Within the trade, an example of a design that is not later produced for general distribution.

satirical currency
Counterfeit or facsimile paper money issued to ridicule a person, often a political leader, or an institution; funny money. Compare, facsimile currency.

seal
Within the trade, small, gummed paper label used to close a letter or package.

separation
Within the trade, the separation from the collet of the lamination of a badge or button.

sepia
Reddish-brown to dark olive brown color. Within the trade, a pinback button with design printed photographically in sepia tones.

skimmer
Flat-crowned hat with a wide straight brim, originally made of straw, later of plastic or Styrofoam simulating straw. Often worn by delegates at political conventions.

so-called dollar
Silver dollar-sized medal commemorating a special event.

songster
Book, usually softbound, containing music and lyrics to songs. Within the trade, a campaign songbook.

shell badge
Badge made of thin, die-cut metal, usually with embossed design. Political shell badges often contain cardboard or ferrotype portraits of candidates for elective office.

stanhope
Optical novelty popular in the mid-19th century, named after English scientist Lord Henry Stanhope (1753-1816), consisting of a tiny glass rod, one end rounded to form a convex lens and a tiny photographic positive cemented to the other end; a magnified view of the photograph could be seen by looking through the lens. Stanhopes were mass-produced and incorporated into jewelry and trinkets.

stereograph
An image in stereo, i.e. two juxtaposed images, usually photographs of the same subject taken from slightly different perspectives, giving the illusion of three dimensions when viewed through a stereoscope. Stereographic cards (stereoviews) of varied subject matter were popular in American and Europe, c. 1860-1940.

stereoview
see stereograph

stickpin
Small ornamental badge mounted on a long, shanked pin, to be worn in a tie or on the lapel.

street banner
Large mesh or canvas banner suspended by ropes or cables over a street or thoroughfare.

stud
see lapel stud

- T -

tab
Badge made of thin, die-cut metal, usually displaying a lithographed design or slogan, worn on the lapel, collar or a pocket, by folding an upper tab against the badge.

table medal
Medal larger than 70 mm in diameter, usually struck on a thick planchet.

third party
A minority political party. In modern American politics, any party other than the Democratic or Republican Parties.

tintype
see ferrotype

token
Coin not issued by a government treasury but having trade value. Within the trade, a medalet.

trade card
Small printed card used to advertise goods or services.

trigate
Trade jargon, from jugate. Having three portraits, conjoined or side-by-side, often of presidential candidates and a coattail candidate; an item (such as a badge or poster) with trigate portraits.

- U -

uncirculated (UNC)
Grade denoting pristine, untouched condition.

uniface
In numismatics, having a design on one side (of a coin) only. Within the trade, may refer to certain 19th century political badges or medalets, e.g. a uniface ferrotype badge.

union insignia
Mark of a union local, added to manufactured goods to signify that the factory or shop producing them is organized. Also, union bug, union label.

- V -

vendor item
Within the trade, campaign item produced for resale by a commercial vendor without the official sanction of a campaign or candidate.

verdigris
In numismatics, a bluish-green deposit, especially of copper carbonates, formed on copper, brass, or bronze coins or medals.

verso
From the Latin verso folio, "the page to be turned." The opposite or reverse side. Compare, recto.

very fine (VF)
Grade denoting choice, very fine condition, with insignificant wear or fatigue.

very good (VG)
Grade denoting very good condition, with minor but noticeable wear or fatigue.

vignette
Picture (as an engraving or photograph) that shades off gradually into the surrounding field, rather than having sharp outlines or a frame.

- W -

want list
List given by a collector to a dealer, listing items the collector wants for a collection. The dealer keeps the want list and attempts to purchase items listed on it for the collector.

watch fob
Short strap, ribbon, or chain attached to a pocket watch; the ornament attached to a fob chain.

white metal
Alloy of lead and tin. In numismatics, a metal used to strike cheaper tokens and medals (often with a prooflike silver finish).

window sticker
Small paper sign with printed slogans and/or graphics, meant to be moistened and applied to glass, especially the interior of automobile windows.

woodcut
In printmaking, a relief technique where the design is left raised above what is carved out of the wood, what is not carved being printed.

- X -

- Y -

- Z -